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Don’t Think Your All Alone!

Not going to be a long post today, just a quick note to help some of my friends out there feel better about their gardening skills.  I just wanted to set some minds at ease.  To those of you who have old yews, rhodies, or other evergreens that don’t appear to have survived the winter, YOU ARE NOT THE ONLY ONES!  I talked in the fall about the importance of watering in the winter months when possible and here is the proof of it’s necessity.  Many, many of you have serious damage to old, established evergreens which you have never given any special care before during the winter.  My point is you’ve been lucky till now, LOL!

ImageNow don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying I told you so, (but I did tell you so).  I’m just saying that many of you have recently become Mother Nature’s latest victims.  Your evergreens have been assaulted with winter burn due to lack of moisture during the long dry months and crazy temps.  And sadly, there is a very high probability that all your precious plants have “shuffled off their barky coil”.  Many rhodies out there look just like the sad little guy in the picture.  And even his distinguished big brothers and sisters look quite similar.  Many coniferous shrubs do appear to still have a spark of life in them, but will they ever fully recover is very difficult to predict.

 

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As you can see from this photo, their does still appear to be a glimmer of hope here, albeit very slight.  In this case, the best recommendation I have is that you immediately begin DEEP watering and get some good evergreen fertilizer or one with a high nitrogen content (the first of the 3 numbers listed on the package) according to the fertilizer instruction.

I would throw out there, that I don’t suggest trimming plants or worse than that, replacing them, until your certain they are not going to recover.  I know it can be tough to except since they tend to be unattractive while injured, but give them the summer to recover and if you still don’t see and results, then replace them either that fall or spring of the next season.  That being said if a coniferous evergreen completely drops its needles, it is NOT likely to recover.

Now, another family of plants that seems to have taken a massive hit this winter is roses.  However, I would certainly like to reassure you; just because all the old canes on your rose are grey and break easily, the plant is certainly NOT deceased.  Many roses will die back to the ground during difficult winters.  Then they will produce new shoots far down on old canes or even directly up from the ground off of old healthy root systems.  After you begin to see the new shoots feel free to trim back the old canes.  Again though, your going to want to feed with a good fertilizer (either a balanced mix or one specifically designed for your particular species of rose.) And of course, get the poor little guy some water!

Anyway, that’s all I’ve got today.  Like I said, I just wanted you to know that your not alone.  And as always, GOOD LUCK AND KEEP GROWING!!!

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To wrap or not to wrap?

Okay, so I discussed caring for your evergreens recently, and I’m sure some of you thought I was just neglecting the deciduous tree’s.  Not true at all, I just wanted to bring up the evergreens’ first because they could potentially perish from winter damage while deciduous tree’s typically do not.  That is not to say that they can not receive winter damage though, so just what are we up against?

Well, first of all let me reiterate that almost all tree’s need to be well watered prior to the ground freezing.  This is especially true for young or newly planted deciduous (LEAFY) tree’s just as evergreens.  The reason being they just don’t have the root structure to search for water when they begin to break dormancy.  Beyond that there are a few other things to consider with regard to your deciduous trees’.  Thin barked and young tree’s are highly susceptible to two major winter damage issues.  While these are not the only things that can affect tree’s during the winter months they are the most common problems.  The first one we will discuss is a problem called WINTER SUN SCALD.

Winter Sun Scald is bark damaging issues.  It is most commonly seen on tree’s such as Maple, Apple, Honeylocust, Ash, and Willow however any young tree with undeveloped, thin bark is susceptible.  What I mean by thin bark is a tree that has yet to achieve that CORKY appearance we commonly attribute to tree bark.  Sun Scald is seen on the south and/or west sides of tree trunks and caused by the temperature variances from day to night hours.  Basically, as the day progresses and the temperatures rise, the previously dormant phloem cells (these are cells in a tree’s vascular system that carry nutrients down to the roots) warm and this triggers a “WAKE UP” reaction.  Those cells mistake the temps as an alarm clock to break dormancy.  Unfortunately they failed to get the memo that Mother Nature has a sense of humor.  So as the night temps drop down again, those cells are caught “with their bark down” and basically freeze to death.  This creates an unsightly wound on the trunk of the tree where the cells essentially stop developing.  While this will typically not kill the tree it does create a myriad of possible problems the worst of which is that it creates a point of entry for disease or damaging pests.  So while a borer insect may ultimately be attributed with the death of a tree, it probably found it’s way in through the sun scald damage.

Image of Sun Scald courtesy of Missouri Botanical Gardens

The second common winter issue for deciduous trees is known as FROST CRACKING.  Unlike Sun Scald which will be permanently visible, frost cracks typically close back upper during summer months.  Frost cracks also generally appear on the south or west side of a trunk.  However, this damage can even affect older corky barked tree’s.  Frost Cracks are also caused by warming cells although, in this case the cells don’t generally die.  Basically, as the daytime temps warm them, the cells begin to expand.  Then when dusk rolls around and temps go back down the cells cool again.  As they cool, they contract.  The outer cells cool faster than the inner cells and as a result, as the outer cells contract faster, they are pulled apart and cause vertical cracks along the bark.  Cracks can easily be several feet long and often will sound like a gunshot when the crack first occurs.  Generally, the cracks will close back up during the summer, although once a crack occurs it will typically reappear during winter months from then on.  Frost Cracks are most common on Maple and Sycamore although any thin barked tree would be susceptible.

Frost Crack Image courtesy NC State University Webpage

There is no perfect way to prevent frost cracks on large tree’s but fortunately there is something you can do to help prevent it and Sun Scald on younger tree’s.  While many orchard growers actually whitewash their tree’s during the winter months to help protect them, this is not commonly used in residential settings as it dramatically changes the appearance of the landscape.  The most common practice in a typical landscape is to use a crepe paper like material known as tree wrap.  Basically to apply the wrap, you begin at the bottom and work your way up, overlapping as you go to completely wrap the trunk all the way up to the first branch knuckle.  I don’t recommend using the plastic trunk protectors as they will leave a gap where you install them and that reduces their efficacy in my opinion.  Now, remember this important point; you need to remove the tree wrap as soon as the weather begins to warm.  Leaving this wrap on the tree will hold moisture against the trunk during the wet spring months and also creates a nice warm home for insects and pests during summer months.  So what was originally intended to help could cause even more damage if not maintained.

I’ve got one more recommendation for you, although this one doesn’t really have anything to do with bark damage.  It really is a good idea to remove at least a couple feet of sod from the base of your tree’s and install mulch instead.   The reason for this is the mulch acts as a blanket in the winter to help keep roots warm, but then will help retain moisture during spring and summer.  It will also help keep weeds down and will prevent the need to try to mow or weed whip around the base of the tree and potentially damage the trunk or exposed surface roots.  However, only mulch to within an inch or two of the trunk so that (like the wrap) the mulch doesn’t hold moisture against the trunk of the tree and create rot.  I like to create a little moat around the trunk of the tree.  Then if I am hand watering I can set the end of the hose in the moat and set it to a slow flow and the moat helps to keep the water from running off.

I hope this gives you an idea on how to maintain your young tree’s so that you get years of enjoyment from them.  Properly placed large shade trees can help decrease utility costs as well as increase the value of your property.  They provide homes for wildlife and shade on a sunny afternoon.  Trust me when I say, they are worth taking a few minutes to protect.

GOOD LUCK AND KEEP GROWING!!!

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Caring for your Evergreens during the winter months.

Even these young Columnar White Pines will need some "lovin" during the winter months.

Even these young Columnar White Pines will need some “lovin” during the winter months.

Well, according to Weather.com our days of 60 degree temps are coming to a close here in the Omaha area.  It appears the average daily high for the month of November will be just under 48 degrees (F).  This means its high time you prepare your evergreens for winter. You should make sure to give all your evergreens a good deep watering prior to the ground freezing.  As a general rule plants need about 10 gallons of water for every inch of caliper (so a 2 inch caliper tree would need about 20 gallons of water) Caliper is the width of the tree trunk about 12″ from the ground (unless it’s a large, established tree, then it is done at chest height).  If your hand watering with just a hose a good rule of thumb is about 5 minutes at medium pressure equals about 10 gallons of water.  Thus if we water our 2″ tree for 20 minutes at medium pressure it should be getting a good drink. Plants “sweat” just like humans do.  This primarily occurs through the leaf structure.  With evergreens this would be the needles, which they don’t lose like your other plants.  This opens the door to a problem known as Winter Burn.  They are “sweating” but the ground is frozen so they aren’t able to take up water through the roots.  Don’t think that just because there is snow on the ground that the plant is getting water.  If the ground is frozen so is the moisture.  To counter this we us a chemical called an ANTI DESICCANT.  The best way to describe this is that it acts as a wax to coat the evergreens needles or leaves to help slow the “sweating” during periods when little or no water is available (although it is not actually a wax).   The best time to apply anti desiccant is when the temps are starting to stay below 50 degrees during mid-day.  However you want to make sure there is no threat of rain or frost within 24 hours (the chemical may not fully adhere).  The other thing to keep in mind is that warm temps can “melt” the chemical off as well, so you may need to re-apply later in the season to maintain protection.  It’s not difficult, you simply spray onto the plant to the point of runoff.  This should help keep your plant from losing water when none is available to replenish it. Keep in mind that even if it is “winter” if we don’t have temps below freezing and still aren’t getting any moisture, you’re going to NEED TO GIVE YOUR PLANTS A DRINK!  Don’t just forget about them because your sprinkler system is off and you don’t feel like dragging a hose.  This could be a costly decision.  Also, DON’T FORGET YOUR BROADLEAF EVERGREENS!  Not all evergreens have needles (and not all needle tree’s are evergreens for that matter).  Plants like Boxwood, Yew, Rhododendron and Holly are especially susceptible to winter burn and should be treated as well. An added bonus of your anti desiccant is that you can even use it on your Holiday Cut Greens such as live wreaths or table center pieces to help them last longer as well.  Even your “live” Christmas tree would benefit greatly from a good coating.  Although I would hope that the folks you purchase the tree from took care of this for you.  Might be a good thing to ask when deciding who to purchase your tree from. GOOD LUCK AND KEEP GROWING!!